In recent years, growing attention has been focused on the utilization of natural sources of antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) represents a lesser known fruit species utilized mainly as juices, purees, jams, jellies and wine, as important food colorants or nutritional supplements. The fruit is valued as a great source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavanols and flavonols), particularly cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside, as well as (−)-epicatechin units. The berries of A. melanocarpa, due to the presence and the high content of these bioactive components, exhibit a wide range of positive effects, such as strong antioxidant activity and potential medicinal and therapeutic benefits (gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory activities). They could be also contributory toward the prevention of chronic diseases including metabolic disorders, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, because of supportive impacts on lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure levels…
The berries of A. melanocarpa belong to the group of fruits with one of the highest in vitro antioxidant activities due to the presence and high content of bioactive components, mainly polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavanols and flavonols). The high antioxidant activity of berries makes their effective utilization in the treatment of chronic diseases related to oxidative stress possible, especially diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Except for the mentioned properties, numerous other positive medicinal and therapeutic benefits, namely immunomodulatory, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory, have been demonstrated for black chokeberry extracts both in vitro, in cells or cell lines, and in in vivo studies in humans or animal…
Lesser known fruit species such as black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa, are coming into the focus of researchers and also the public, particularly due to their great antioxidative activity. They represent a very valuable fruit with a high level of polyphenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and procyanidins ((−)-epicatechin units). The content of polyphenols and their exact composition are quite variable and dependent on the particular cultivar, level of fruit ripeness, the growing locality and climatic conditions. Although the bioavailability of polyphenols is poor, their biotransformation can cause the metabolic activation of health benefits.
Taking into account all of the facts, by the selection of optimal cultivars and growing conditions, polyphenols of A. melanocarpa represent a good choice for health-promoting activities including immunomodulatory, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer benefits.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Chronic Diseases)
Tunde Jurikova 1, Jiri Mlcek 2,*, Sona Skrovankova 2, Daniela Sumczynski 2, Jiri Sochor 3, Irena Hlavacova 2, Lukas Snopek 2 and Jana Orsavova 4
1 Institute for teacher training, Faculty of Central European Studies, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Drazovska 4, Nitra SK-949 74, Slovakia
2 Department of Food Analysis and Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, nám. T. G. Masaryka 5555, CZ-760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic, (D.S.)
3 Department of Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University in Brno, Valticka 337, CZ-691 44 Lednice, Czech Republic
4 Language Centre, Faculty of Humanities, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, nám. T. G. Masaryka 5555, CZ-760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic
* Correspondence: Tel. +420-576-033-030
Academic Editors: Dong-Kug Choi and Palanivel Ganesan
Received: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017